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Jinnah -- a Freedom Fighter

Jinnah's journey to London 1893 | Early Days of Jinnah's Life | BIOGRAPHY

Gandhi and Jinnah - a study in contrasts

An extract from the book that riled India's Bharatiya Janata Party and led to the expulsion of its author Jaswant Singh, one of the founder members, of the party. Comparing Gandhi and Jinnah is an extremely complex exercise but important for they were, or rather became, the two foci of the freedom movement. Gandhi was doubtless of a very different mould, but he too, like Jinnah, had gained eminence and successfully transited from his Kathiawari origins to become a London barrister before acquiring a political personality. Yet there existed an essential difference here. Gandhi's birth in a prominent family - his father was, after all, a diwan (prime minister) of an Indian state - helped immeasurably. No such advantage of birth gave Jinnah a leg up, it was entirely through his endeavours. Gandhi, most remarkably, became a master practitioner of the politics of protest. This he did not do by altering his own nature, or language of discourse, but by transforming the very natu

Understanding Jinnah

Some two decades back, I read a book by Raj Mohan Gandhi, titled Understanding the Muslim Mind . The book is about eight great Indian Muslims, including Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan, who shaped the destiny of the Muslims of the subcontinent. I thought of doing a similar book that would provide insight into the Kashmir mind. But then I asked myself, could any of them really be called great men? The eight people Raj Mohan Gandhi has written about are truly great minds and out of them I see Muhammad Ali Jinnah as the greatest, for his “indomitable will”. Also, as put by his biographer Stanly Wolpert, “his place of primacy in Pakistan’s history looms like a minaret over the achievements of all his contemporaries.” In my search for finding what was missing in our contemporary leaders, I found that instead of redeeming people they have pushed them into a morass of uncertainty. I had an opportunity of finding a Jinnah outside his famous biographies. In two article

Jinnah Road in heart of Ankara

The most important and posh area of the capital has a picture of Pakistan’s founding father installed in a frame at the start of the largest road. The Cinnah Caddesi is a major road located in the heart of Ankara, the capital of Turkey. It is one of the most important arteries of traffic and commerce in the city. It was dedicated to, and named after, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan. In Turkish language, Jinnah is spelled as ‘Cinnah’.

Quaid-e-Azam and The Tribals

Quaid-e-Azam is addressing Tribals Quaid-e-Azam at the Afgan Border (1935) Quaid-e-Azam receiving a rifle from a tribal chief Quaid-e-Azam accepting a loaf of bread from tribesmen in Khyber Agency As a gesture of goodwill, tribal leaders presenting a goat to the Quaid A newspaper report before the foundation of Pakistan when tribal delegation from Kurram fata meet Quaid e Azam in delihi.

Statement On the success of League's Lahore Session (March 22-23, 1940)

Summing up his impression about the League Session the Quaid said: “The first thing that has emerged from this session of the All-India Muslim League is that the entire body of delegates in the open session and the vast public accepted the resolution moved by the chair, also unanimously. This has shown beyond doubt that the Musalmans are capable of standing and going through an order and trial worthy of any great organization." . . . Source: Paksitan Visions, An International Journal of Pakistan Affair (Quaid-i-Azam Number), Vol. II, No. 1 & 2 January-july 2001, Lahore

Pakistan Resolution Lahore : March 23, 1940

As soon as the All-India Muslim League, at its Lahore Session in March 1940, adopted the resolution there was a hysterical outburst in Congress and other Hindu circles. Without pausing to consider the merits of the proposal they began to decry and oppose it tooth and nail. The Quaid in a statement appealed to the better mind of the Hindu and other communities to give serious consideration to the Pakistan Resolution as the only way of achieving India’s freedom at an early date. He said: “I still hope at any rate the better mind of the Hindus will give earnest and serious consideration to our proposals as there lies the achievement of India’s freedom at the earliest possible period. This freedom we shall be able to retain peacefully both internally and externally.” Source: Paksitan Visions, An International Journal of Pakistan Affair (Quaid-i-Azam Number), Vol. II, No. 1 & 2 January-july 2001, Lahore

Two-Nation Theory

. Excerpt from the Presidential Address delivered by the Quaid-i-Azam "It is extremely difficult to appreciate why our Hindu friends fail to understand the real nature of Islam and Hinduism. They are not religious in the strict sense of the word, but are, in fact, different and distinct social orders; and it is only a dream that the Hindus and Muslims can ever evolve a common nationality. This misconception of one Indian Nation has troubles and will lead India to destruction if we fail to revise our notions in time. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs, literatures. They neither intermarry nor interdine together and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspect on life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Mussalmans derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes, and different episod

Statement Asking Muslims Of India To Observe November 1st As "Muslim Countries Day"

Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, President of the All-India Muslim League, has announced that November 1st should be observed as: “The day for the purpose of expressing and demonstrating the deep feeling of sympathy and concern of Muslim India, with the Muslim countries against any possible design or aggression upon the sovereignty and independence of those countries.” The Council of the All-India Muslim League at its last meeting resolved that “in view of the repeated reports that have reached India recently that there is probability of war flames spreading and of aggression by Foreign Powers against the independence and sovereignty of the Muslim countries such as Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Turkey,” the President of the Muslim League should fix a day “for the purpose of expressing and demonstrating deep sympathy and concern of Muslim India with Muslim countries and also conveying to those who have any such design that in the event of any attack upon Muslim countries Muslim India w

Statement Regarding Palestine Conference Bombay, January 30, 1939

"In view of the forthcoming Palestine Conference, which is going to take place on or about February 7, 1939 in London, I have sent the following telegram to Mr. Chamberlain, the Prime Minister of Great Britain: the Secretary of State for India and Mr. Malcolm MacDonald, the Minister for Colonies: "The All-India Muslim League urges upon His Majesty’s Government to give representation to the Muslim League on the Palestine Conference and concede the Palestine National Arab demands. Muslim India is most anxiously awaiting results. I cannot by means of a telegram express adequately and impress the intensity of feeling prevailing throughout India. The failure of the Conference will be most disastrous throughout the Muslim world, resulting in grave consequences. I trust that this earnest appeal will receive your serious consideration." Source: South Asian Studies: bi-annual Research Journal, Vol. 17,No. 1 (Quaid-i-Azam Number) January 2002, PP. 91. Also cited in The Civil &

Statement On The Palestine Problem Bombay: November 10, 1938

The view that Muslims of India are solidly behind the struggle which the Arabs are carrying on in Palestine for their freedom was expressed by Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, President of the All India Muslim League. Commenting on the declaration of policy by His Majesty’s Government on the Palestine problem, the Quaid said: "I feel that Arab leaders of Palestine and the neighboring States will be far more competent to deal with the matter than any Indian can from this distance, as they not only are fully competent but also understand the situation on the spot better. I would not, therefore, at this stage venture to make any suggestion of a concrete nature, but would like to make it clear that Muslims of India are solidly behind the struggle which the Arabs are carrying on for their freedom. Their feelings and sentiments have been repeatedly presented to the British Government". Muslims Resentment "Only in September last, in a long interview with His Excellency t

Replying To Various Points Raised By The Deputation Of The Scheduled Cast Federation Dacca, March 21, 1948

The Quaid said: "We stand by our declarations that members of every community will be treated as citizens of Pakistan with equal rights and privileges and obligations and that the minorities will be safeguarded and protected". He added: “But you must have a little patience and give us time to make the effort to give effect to those declarations. I assure you of our goodwill and solicitude for the welfare of the Scheduled Castes in particular, as you have been downtrodden for countries, deserve more help than any other community. I have always advocated your cause and I shall continue to do so.” In regard to their proposal that two Scheduled Caste Ministers should be included in the East Bengal Ministry, the Quaid-i-Azam said: “It is not that we are against including the Scheduled Castes in the Ministry, but the present position of the Schedule Castes in the Assembly is that you have only five members who follow you out of 19. We are after all working on the lines of dem

Statement On Protection For Minorities In Pakistan

Quaid-e-Azam with the representatives of Minorities Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Governor General designate of Pakistan, at a press conference, assured the minorities in the Pakistan Dominion that they would have protection with regard to their religion, faith, life, property and culture. They would, in all respects be citizens of Pakistan without any discrimination and no doubt along with it they would have the obligations of citizenship. The minorities would have to be loyal to the State and owe true allegiance to the State. The same principle, the Quaid emphasized, would apply to the minorities in India as well. One cannot have minorities disloyal to the State and sabotaging the state. Every citizen must be loyal to his State. Citizens of Pakistan Question : Could you as Governor General make a brief statement on the minorities problems? The Quaid: At present I am only Governor-General designate. We will assume for moment that on August 15, I shall be really the Gov

Statement On The Situation In The Frontier Province New Delhi : May 7, 1947

Quaid-e-Azam with  members of NWFP Assembly in Peshawar Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, President of the All India Muslim League, issued a thousand words Statement on the Frontier. "I have had the opportunity of fully discussing with Frontier League leaders the situation in the North-West Frontier Province and the developments that have taken place recently. The League movement in the Frontier was started because the people and especially the Muslim Leaguers and the League organization in the Province were sought to be crushed by Khan Sahib Ministry, by fair means or foul, ever since the ministry was formed. The victimization, persecution, suppression and oppression on the part of the Government, knew no limits. “Every vestige of civil liberties had ceased to exist. Ordinances, Frontier Crimes Regulations, Section 144 and other repressive provisions of the law were being freely and ruthlessly used to deprive the people of their rights of political expression and criticism

Statement Regarding Killing In The Minority Province New Delhi: Nov 3, 1946

Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, President of the All India Muslim League has issued the following statement to the press: “I have been receiving reports of very grave and serious character of killing and destruction of property from the Muslim minority provinces such as Bihar, U.P., C.P., Madras and Bombay and I assure the Muslims of minority provinces that it was not due to indifferent or neglect that I have been queit. The matter is receiving my most careful attention and consideration. Enquiries by the League “It was arranged that four members of the Interior Central Government should go to Patna. Besides Mr. Muhammad Nauman, M.L.A. (Central) has been deputed by the Muslim League Party in the Central Assembly to go to Bihar and enquiries are being made with regard to those parts of U.P., C.P., Bihar, Madras and Bombay where disturbances have taken place, including East Bengal and Calcutta. “I shall await the reports of our representatives Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan and Sardar Ab

Statement Regarding Kashmir Affairs New Delhi: November 2, 1946

Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, President All-India Muslim League issued the following statement to the Press: “I have had an opportunity of meeting the deputation on behalf of the All-Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Committee and I deeply regret that the Kashmir Government should have thought it fit to ban the annual session of the Conference. “It is opposed to the elementary principles of Liberty. The people have every right to meet in a peaceful manner and express and ventilate their grievance and criticize the policy and actions of any civilized Government. “It is regrettable that the foremost leader of the Conference should have been arrested and detained without any trial and from all accounts that I have received, the Prime Minister Mr. Kak, and the Government are pursuing a policy of suppressing free expression of opinion resorting to unjustifiable methods of terrorism and gagging free expression of opinion on the eve of the coming elections. I therefore, appeal to the Mahar

Video: The Pakistan Resolution - A milestone towards Pakistan

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23rd March 1940: What Our Youth Must Know About?

The Pakistani youth of today seem to be simply ignorant of the historical background of the creation of Pakistan. The reason is mostly to do with detest of theirs for Pakistan Studies while at schools. Based on my interaction with many of them, it is my considered opinion that there is a weakness and void out there amongst our youth vis- -vis history of Pakistan. On this historic day of 23rd March 'also known as Pakistan Day' I therefore thought to write something for educating my youth on the significance of this day. The youth of today must know that Pakistan owes her creation to four erstwhile outstanding Muslim leaders, namely: Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-98), Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar (1878-1931), Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948), and Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938). These leaders provided intellectual and political leadership to Indian Muslims during about ninety years (1858-1947) of the British imperial rule on the Sub-continent. It is important for t

The Great Quaid's message for Pakistani Youth!