Who could understand Allama Iqbal better than the Quaid-i Azam himself, who was his awaited "Guide of the Era"? The Quaid-i Azam in the Introduction to Allama Iqbal's letters addressed to him, admitted that he had agreed with Allama Iqbal regarding a State for Indian Muslims before the latters death in April, 1938. The Quaid stated: His views were substantially in consonance with my own and had finally led me to the same conclusions as a result of careful examination and study of the constitutional problems facing India and found expression in due course in the united will of Muslim India as adumbrated in the Lahore Resolution of the All-India Muslim League popularly known as the "Pakistan Resolution" passed on 23rd March, 1940. Furthermore, it was Allama Iqbal who called upon Quaid-i Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah to lead the Muslims of India to their cherished goal. He preferred the Quaid to other more experienced Muslim leaders such as Sir Aga Khan, Maulana Ha
Quaid-e-Azam being received by PAF officer at Lahore Airport "Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three. Hailed as 'Great Leader' (Quaid-e-Azam) of Pakistan and its first Governor General, Jinnah virtually conjured that country into statehood by the force of his indomitable will." ( Prof. Stanley Wolport) Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah is one of the most dynamic leaders of modern times. As is evident from Wolport's opening paragraphs of the Quaid's biography, 'Jinnah of Pakistan', he was a complete leader. His foresight was tremendous. During his stay in Europe, he had watched the emergence of air power very closely. From its limited role in the First World War to the unprecedented death and destruction unleashed on humanity by the use of this new weapon, the Quaid perceived the overriding role th
Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the outstanding leader and a visionary statesman created this nation state of Pakistan by legal and constitutional means, with the power of the pen, speech and vote. To understand Pakistan, the reasons which led to its creation, what Pakistan stood for and was intended to accomplish, one has to understand Jinnah. From an early age Jinnah displayed a remarkable interest in the life and conditions around him. The small world around him was the object of his interest and public events were the books he studied. At the young age of 16, he left for England to establish commercial connections in London but later he enrolled himself at the Lincolns Inn and began preparing for the Bar. He was called to the Bar at 21 and in the same year he returned to India. As a barrister and advocate, Jinnah holds a place which is unique in the subcontinent. Great lawyers and men many years his senior acknowledged him as a master in the art of advocacy. He had the remarkable ability
Despite Mountbatten's insistence to be Governor General of both India and Pakistan, Mr Jinnah refused him the honour in Pakistan. Earlier the earl asked him, Do you know what this might cost him. Jinnah replied a few thousand square miles. Mountbatten went red in the face and replied You might lose the whole of Pakistan! True to his word he took every step to strangle Pakistan in its infancy. He fell victim to a IRA bomb while yachting with his family in 1979. Here both the Governors General are seen in the constitutent assembly of Pakistan in Karachi on 14 August 1947 and their body language says it all! .
originally uploaded by Doc Kazi . On 3 June 1947 all the Indian leaders got together and put their seal on the Partition Plan. Seated by the map on the wall is Lord Ismay, Mountbatten's Chief of Staff who probably tampered with the Radcliffe Award and gave Gurdaspur to India to keep the two new countries in a perpetual state of war over Kashmir till eternity!
originally uploaded by Doc Kazi . An ICS officer from Bengal, S C Bose (1897-1945) resigned from service and was twice elected president of the Congress but had to quit due to ideological differences with Gandhi and Nehru. He later became President of the Indian National Army during World War II. He travelled to Germany but disillusioned with Hitler, he moved to Japan and fought for the independence of India from British rule. Here he is seen in a meeting with Mr Jinnah. Bose commonly known as Netaji in India is believed to have died in an air crash on 18 August 1945 over Taiwan but his death is shrouded in mystery. He may have died as a Russian PoW in Siberia.
originally uploaded by Doc Kazi . Mr Jinnah's first meeting with the new viceroy Lord Mountbatten was a disaster. "It took most of the interview trying to unfreeze him" remarked Mountbatten afterwards. But at the end of the meeting things got better because a group photograph had to be taken and assuming that Edwina Mountbatten would be in the center Mr Jinnah planned that we would remark 'a rose between two thorns'. Apparently Mr Jinnah was placed in the center but he passed the remark anyway causing some laughter. The relations of the two men never improved significantly though. All the rest is history!
originally uploaded by Doc Kazi . I got this rare photgraph from Mahmood on Victoria Road. He could not identify the others although the man in the center resembles the Nawab of Jungadh. The British General is Douglas Gracey. Mr Jinnah seems in a relaxed mood ostensibly with his favorite 'Craven A' cigarettes, which finally got him.
Rutten Bai Petit around the time she married Jinnah in 1918 , originally uploaded by Doc Kazi . Born a Parsi, she converted to Islam on her 18th birthday and left her father's mansion with two pets only to marry Jinnah. Exactly eleven years later she was dead of an overdose of painkillers to treat her abdominal cancer. Jinnah never married again and died a lonely man. Known as the nightingale of Bombay, Ruttie died on her 29th birthday on 20 February 1929
Speech in reply to Address of Welcome presented to Quaid-e-Azam and Miss Fatima Jinnah by the Parsi community of Sind at the Katrak Parsi Colony, Karachi: February 3, 1948. I am thankful to you for your Address of Welcome and the kind words you have spoken about me and Miss Fatima Jinnah. I deeply appreciate your offer of loyal co-operation with the Government of Pakistan and I assure you that Pakistan means to stand by its oft-repeated promises of according equal treatment to all its nationals irrespective of their cast and creed. Pakistan, which symbolizes the aspirations of a nation that found itself in a minority in the Indian sub-continent, can not be unmindful of the minorities within its own borders. It is a pity that the fair name of Karachi was sullied by the sudden outburst of communal frenzy last month and I can not find words strong enough to condemn the action of those who were responsible for it. Government is determined in its resolve to root out lawlessness and to see
Address to the officers and men of the 5th Heavy Ack Ack and 6th Light Ack Ack Regiments in Malir , on 21st February, 1948. Gentlemen, As I stated while addressing the Naval Officers and men the other day, that best way in which we can serve the cause of peace and the ideals of the United Nations Organization is by making ourselves strong so that no power may dare harbor any aggressive designs against us. We have won the battle of Pakistan's freedom but the grimmer battle for the preservation of that freedom and building it on a firmer and sounder basis is still in progress and that battle has to be fought to a successful conclusion if we are to survive as a great nation. Nature's inexorable law is 'the survival of the fittest' and we have to prove ourselves fit for our newly won freedom. You have fought many a battle on the far-flung battle fields of the globe to rid the world of the Fascist menace and make it safe for democracy. Now you have to stand guard over t
Message to the Nation on the occasion of the first Anniversary of Pakistan on 14th August, 1948. Citizens of Pakistan, Today we are celebrating the first anniversary of our freedom. A year ago complete power was transferred to the people of Pakistan, and the Pakistan Government, under the present Constitution as adapted, took over charge of the affairs of the country in its own hands. We have faced the year with courage, determination and imagination, and the record of our achievements has been a wonderful one in warding off the blows of the enemy which have been so often referred to before, especially the pre-planned genocide and pushing on with real constructive work internally. The result of our constructive and ameliorative work has gone far beyond the expectations of our best friends. I congratulate you all–my Ministers under the leadership of the Prime Minister, members of the Constituent Assembly and of the legislatures; officials working in various administrative department
Message to the Nation on the occasion of Eid-ul-Fitr on 27th August, 1948. On this day of rejoicing I send my greetings to Muslims all over the world and wish them very happy Eid. For us the last Eid-ul-Fitr, which followed soon after the birth of Pakistan, was marred by the tragic happenings in East Punjab. The blood bath of last year and its aftermath–the mass migration of millions–presented a problem of unprecedented magnitude. To provide new moorings for this mass of drifting humanity strained our energies and resources to breaking point. The immensity of the task very nearly overwhelmed us and we could only just keep our heads above water. The brief span of 12 months was not sufficient to see all the Mohajreens settled in profitable employment in Pakistan. Considerable progress has been made in resettling them but a good many remain to be rehabilitated. We cannot rejoice till every one of them has been put on his feet again. I am sanguine that by next Eid this formidable and i
Speech on the occasion of the opening of the State Bank of Pakistan on 1st July, 1948. Mr. Governor, Directors of the State Bank, Ladies and Gentlemen The opening of the State Bank of Pakistan symbolises the sovereignty of our State in the financial sphere and I am very glad to be here today to perform the opening ceremony. It was not considered feasible to start a bank of our own simultaneously with the coming into being of Pakistan in August last year. A good deal of preparatory work must precede the inauguration of an institution responsible for such technical and delicate work as note issue and banking. To allow for this preparation, it was provided, under the Pakistan Monetary System and Reserve Bank Order, 1947, that the Reserve Bank of India should continue to be the currency and banking authority in Pakistan till the 30th September, 1948. Later on it was felt that it would be in that best interest of our State if the Reserve Bank of India were relieved of its functions in
Reply to the Civic Address presented by the Quetta Municipality on I5th June, 1948. I thank you for your address of welcome and for the kind words and good wishes you have expressed for me and Miss Fatima Jinnah, and I greatly appreciate your handsome and generous contribution to the Relief Fund and noble cause which it represents. Though luckily Baluchistan was spared the tragedy which the Punjab went through on the estabtishment of Pakistan, and, on account of its situation, does not face the refugee problem in the same way as other ‘parts of Pakistan do, the welfare of refugees and all who suffered because Pakistan was achieved is the responsibility of us all. The relief and rehabilitation of these stricken people is a matter of great importance and urgency for Pakistan for, until they become useful members of the society, the progress of Pakistan will not be fully accelerated. Every effort made in this direction, therefore, is most welcome, as it will advance the cause of progres
Address to the Officers of the Staff College, Quetta 14th June, 1948 I thank you, gentlemen, for the honour you have done me and Miss Fatima Jinnah by inviting us to meet you all. You, along with other Forces of Pakistan; are the custodians of the life, property and honour of the people of Pakistan. The Defence Forces are the most vital of all Pakistan Service and correspondingly a very heavy responsibility and burden lies on your shoulders. I have no doubt in my mind, from what I have seen and from what I have gathered, that the spirit of the Army is splendid, the morale is very high, and what is very encouraging is that every officer and soldier, no matter what the race or community to which he belongs, is working as a true Pakistani. If you all continue in that spirit and work as comrades, as true Pakistanis selflessly, Pakistan has nothing to fear. One thing more, I am persuaded to say this because during my talks with one or two very high-ranking officers I discovered that
Reply to the Address presented by a Deputation of the members of the Quetta Parsi Community on 13th June, 1948. Click to enlarge. Receiving a Karakuli Jinnah Cap from Balochistan National Guards Gentlemen, I am very pleased indeed to meet you all and have an opportunity of hearing your well-considered views about Baluchistan, and I have no doubt in your sincerity and loyalty to Pakistan. Your community is really very well organised and I am happy–and I always say so–that it is better equipped than any other community that I know of in the sub-continent. You, therefore, although small in number, can make very great contribution to the welfare and progress of Pakistan and particularly Baluchistan. Now coming nearer to Baluchistan, I know that people have not yet fully realised what present constitution is–that is true of even of well-informed and well-educated people. The establishment of Pakistan was catastrophic change and thus came so suddenly that people have not yet fully r
Speech at the Opening Ceremony of the First Pakistan Olympic Games at Karachi on 22nd April, 1948. Pir Illahi Baksh, Mr. Ahmed Jaffer, Members of the Organizing and other Committees, Ladies and Gentlemen: It has given me great pleasure to come here today to perform the opening ceremony of the first Pakistan Olympic games. I agreed to become the patron-in-chief of the Pakistan Olympic Association in the realisation that the success of our people in all walks of life depends upon the cultivation of “Sound Minds” the natural concomitant to “Sound Bodies”. To the athletes and youth of the nation I bid welcome. My message to you is: build up physical strength not for aggression, not for militarism, but for becoming fighting fit, all your life and all the time in every walk of life of your nation wherever you be and always to be a force for peace, international amity and goodwill. After these games you shall go to the World Olympic at Wembley Stadium, London, representing us as messenger
Reply to the Speech made by His Excellency the Ambassador of Afghanistan at the time of presenting Credentials on 8th May, 1948. Your Royal Highness, It gives me very great pleasure indeed to welcome you today as the first Ambassador from Afghanistan. The Government and people of Pakistan greatly appreciate the action of His Majesty the King of Afghanistan in sending to us an Ambassador from the Royal family of Afghanistan. We hope and trust that with a Representative of Your Royal Highness’ distinction and experience the age-old link which bind our two peoples will be further strengthened thus paving the way for a bright and happy future for both our countries. Your Royal Highness has rightly referred to the natural bonds of friendship and affection, which bind the people of our two countries. It could hardly be otherwise as these bonds are based on ties of faith and culture and common ideals. With such powerful bonds already in our favour we cannot, I feel, fail to bring the pe
Reply to the Address presented by the Karachi Chamber of Commerce on 27th April 1948. It gives me great pleasure, Mr. Chairman, to be here this morning with you all at this you’re 88th Annual General Meeting. I presume it is an accident to hold this meeting in the premises of the Karachi Cotton Association, for one can hardly dissociate Karachi from commerce and the commerce of this place from cotton. You have, Mr. Chairman, covered a very wide field in your address, from the founding of the sovereign and independent State of Pakistan to the petty usurpations of power by minor official here and there over this far-flung Dominion, from the intricacies of cotton trade to the common place of delays. You will, however, hardly expect me to follow you in every detail in my reply. I cannot, however, let an opportunity, such as you have presented to me today, pass without calling attention to certain salient points arising out of your address. Let me, Mr. Chairman first acknowledge the tri